SEMINAR : The symphony of modern neuroscience, 15th March 2017

Vidéo intégrale filmée en live en deux parties : 1h53 (matinée) – 2h46 (après-midi)

SEMINAR : The symphony of modern neuroscience

15th March 2017 10 am – 17:50 pm at IMéRA

Workshop sponsored by IMéRA and organised by IMéRA Fellows P. Expert, S. de Nigris, H. Fernandes, L-D. Lord, T. Carletti (Team Quintet)

Our residency project is articulated around the integration of mathematical and computational methods to model and understand brain function. It is by definition an interdisciplinary endeavour, and our workshop will reflect this. We will invite speakers representing the different aspects that are crucial to the development of our project and, moreover, prominent figures in modern neuroscience, and have them expose an overview of their field, aspirations and most importantly open questions. The workshop will conclude on a panel discussion to foster new and common research interests and collaborations among the speakers and the audience. As one barrier to interdisciplinarity lies in the technicalities of each field, the workshop will take the form of pedagogical talks, focused on the concepts and heuristics, and a panel discussions.

The overall aims of this workshop, particularly with the final panel discussion, are tripartite: first, easying the interaction among researchers from different research horizons; second, to gain new prospectives on common questions and, finally, to join efforts to solve problems, each contributing its own expertise.

10.00-10.10: Introductory words

10.10-11.00: The Virtual Brain: biologically realistic network modeling merging structure and dynamics, Prof V. Jirsa, Aix*Marseille Université

11.00-11.50: From static to temporal networks, Prof A. Barrat, Aix*Marseille Université

11.50-13.00: Lunch break

13.00-13.50: The Connectome Avatar: Closed loop computational models to explore environment-dynamics interactions, Dr P. Hellyer, Imperial College London

13.50-14.40: Harmonic signatures of consciousness, sleep and psychedelic experience, Dr. S. Atasoy, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

14.40-15.00: Coffee break

15.00-15.50: Groove on the brain: rhythmic complexity and predictive coding, Pr. P. Vuust, Aarhus University and Danish Royal Academy of Music

15.50-16.20: Coffee break and set up for the panel discussion

16.20-17.40: Panel discussion

17.40-17.50: Closing words

List of speakers and abstracts
Prof. Viktor Jirsa Institut des Neurosciences des Systèmes, Aix*Marseille Université, Inserm, CNRS, France
Title: The Virtual Brain: biologically realistic network modeling merging structure and dynamics
Abstract: Over the past decade we have demonstrated that constraining computational brain network models by structural information obtained from human brain imaging (anatomical MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)) allows patient specific predictions, beyond the explanatory power of neuroimaging alone. This fusion of an individual’s brain structure with mathematical modelling allows creating one model per patient, systematically assessing the modeled parameters that relate to individual functional differences. The functions of the brain model are governed by realistic neuroelectric and neurovascular processes and allow executing dynamic neuroelectric simulation; further modeling features include refined geometry in 3D physical space; detailed personalized brain connectivity (Connectome); large repertoire of mathematical representations of brain region models, and a complete set of physical forward solutions mimicking commonly used in non-invasive brain mapping including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Electro – encephalography (EEG) and StereoElectroEncephalography (SEEG). So far our large-scale brain modeling approach has been successfully applied to the modeling of the resting state dynamics of individual human brains, as well as aging and clinical questions in stroke and epilepsy. In this talk I will focus on the example of epilepsy and systematically demonstrate the individual steps towards the creation of a personalized epileptic patient brain model.

Prof. Alain Barrat: Centre de Physique Théorique, Aix-Marseille Université, France and Institute for Scientific Interchange, Torino, Italy
Title: From static to temporal networks
Abstract: In the last 15-20 years, a significant interdisciplinary research activity has developed in the context of complex networks, motivated by the fact that many systems can be represented by networks, that is to say a set of sites or vertices connected by ties, and that data describing many systems of interest in different fields have become available. More recently, an important development has emerged, to take into account the fact that many networks evolve over time. The resulting studies of temporal networks have been made both possible and necessary thanks to the novel availability of time-resolved datasets and to the need to study the temporal dimension of many phenomena. Although several advances have been made, this field is still largely in its infancy. I will present a brief panorama of recent advances and challenges in this still very open field.

Prof. Peter Vuust: Centre for Music in the Brain, Dept. of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and Royal Academy of Music, Denmark
Title: Groove on the brain: rhythmic complexity and predictive coding
Abstract: Musical rhythm has a remarkable capacity to move our minds and bodies. In this talk I will describe how the theory of predictive coding can be used as a framework for understanding how rhythm and rhythmic complexity are processed in the brain. This theory posits a hierarchical organisation of brain responses reflecting fundamental, survival- related mechanisms associated with predicting future events. Overall, I will show how musical rhythm exploits the brain’s general principles of prediction and that the pleasure and desire for sensorimotor synchronisation from musical rhythm could be a result of such mechanisms.

Dr. Peter Hellyer: Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London
Title: The Connectome Avatar: Closed loop computational models to explore environment- dynamics interactions
Abstract: In recent years, there have been many computational simulations of spontaneous neural dynamics of the brain at rest. Here, we describe a simple work-in- progress model of spontaneous neural dynamics. Using simple simulated neural activity- to-behavior mappings, these spontaneous neural dynamics control an agent moving in a simple virtual environment. These dynamics generate interesting brain-environment feedback interactions that rapidly destabilize neural and behavioral dynamics demonstrating the need for homeostatic mechanisms. We investigate roles for homeostatic plasticity both locally (local inhibition adjusting to balance excitatory input); as well as macroscopic regulation (“task negative” activity that compensates for “task positive”, sensory input in another region) balancing neural activity and leading to more stable behavior (trajectories through the environment). Our results suggest complementary functional roles for both local and macroscale mechanisms in maintaining neural and behavioral dynamics. These findings suggest a novel functional role for frequently reported macroscopic “task-negative” patterns of activity (e.g., the default mode network).

Dr. Selen Atasoy: Computational neuroscience group, Center for Brain and Cognition, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain
Title: Harmonic signatures of consciousness, sleep and psychedelic experience
Abstract: Harmonic patterns are ubiquitous in nature emerging as building blocks of pattern formation in various physical and biological phenomena ranging from sound waves created by an instrument, electron orbits of an atom, electro-magnetic interactions in a grid of ions, to formation of animal coat and shell patterns in morphogenesis. In this talk I will illustrate how these harmonic waves naturally self-organize in brain activity and underlie brain’s complex spatio-temporal dynamics. Decomposition of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired in conscious awake, sleep and psychedelic states into the harmonic modes of brain’s structural connectivity reveals unique characteristics and harmonic signatures of these mental experiences.

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